IntroductionFollowing the 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that declared racial segregation in public education unconstitutional and the Court’s order, issued one year later, that all-white public schools…

IntroductionThe late twentieth century witnessed renewed political competition between Democrats and Republicans in Virginia. The old one-party oligarchy of the Byrd Machine no longer existed, as the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the abolition of…

Introduction In 1951, African American students at Robert Russa Moton High School in Farmville, Virginia organized a mass walkout in protest of the Prince Edward County School Board’s policy of racial segregation. Barbara Johns, a sixteen-year-old…

Introduction The Virginia Military Institute (VMI) was established in 1839 as a state college in Lexington, Virginia with a mission to create “citizen soldiers” for leadership in military and civilian life. In 1989, a female high school student from…